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used puts. The difference between print and puts is that puts automatically moves the output cursor to the next line, whereas print continues printing text onto the same line as the previous time. Generally you ll want to use puts, but I used print to make the earlier examples more intuitive to read out loud.

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In the previous section you created a person and assigned that person to a variable (computer terminology for a placeholder ) called person_instance. Variables are an important part of programming, and they re easy to understand, especially if you have the barest of knowledge of algebra. Consider this:

x = 10

Instead of making the presentation human by telling an anecdote about a real person, he cited dry data about the millions of people the company aims to reach with its various drugs As he read the prepared script in formal and impersonal language, someone else on his team advanced the PowerPoint slides forward on the computer, sometimes missing a cue and leaving a disconnect between what the lawyer said and what the jurors saw The lawyer occasionally turned back at the screen behind him to point at a complicated chart or a long passage of text Rather than display a dynamic and engaging visual experience, the lawyer next showed a slide with a formal photograph of the company s former CEO in a coat and tie as he talked about the CEO and his family, his biography, his public service, and his civic involvement.

This code assigns the value 10 to the variable x. x now equals 10, and you can do things like this:

So far, so good. But what if you want to access the global variables inside a function As long as you only want to read the value of the variable (that is, you don t want to rebind it), there is generally no problem: >>> def combine(parameter): print parameter + external ... >>> external = 'berry' >>> combine('Shrub') Shrubberry

x * 2

Missing the chance to connect with the everyday people in the jury with color and character, the defense lawyer continued on with slides that showed formal photographs of other corporate executives, their Ivy League educations, detailed biographies, and long lists of accomplishments Missing the point that less is more, later the lawyer displayed the familiar bullet points, charts, and long passages of text that the jurors strained to read The defense lawyer s relationship with the jurors never warmed up with the chilly and formal tone of the prepared talk The podium that was now in front of the jurors had erected a wall between the presenter and his audience, the prepared script took away the lawyer s natural voice and spontaneity, and the PowerPoint slides on the screen became a 10-foot distraction from the lawyer who was speaking.

Variables in Ruby can contain any concept that Ruby understands, such as numbers, text, and other data structures I ll cover throughout this book. In the previous section, person_instance was a variable that referred to an object instance of the Person class, much like x is a variable containing the number 10. More simply, consider person_ instance as a name that refers to a particular, unique Person object. When you want to store something and use it over multiple lines within a program, you ll use variables as temporary storage places for the data you re working with.

Previously, you created a simple class (Person), created an object of that class, assigned it as the person_instance variable, and gave it an identity (you called it Robert ) that you queried. If these concepts seem simple to you, well done you understand the bare basics of object orientation! If not, reread the previous section and make sure you follow along on your computer, but also read this section, as I m going to go into a little more depth. You started out with a Person class, but now you need something a bit more complex, so let s create some pets to live inside Ruby. You ll create some cats, dogs, and snakes. The first step is to define the classes. You could do something like this:

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